Glossary

Anonymous FTP

Using the File Transfer Protocol (FTP) to access files that are available to the public. Anonymous FTP sites do not require you to have an account or use a login ID and password to access files.

 

Archie

A program that to find publicly accessible Internet files that you can transfer to your PC. An Archie program searches other systems on the Internet for files matching the criteria you specify (for example, file name or file type), and provides you a list of the locations of those files, so that you can transfer those files using FTP. Archie programs are usually found on publicly accessible Archie sites that you access using Telnet.

 

Acrobat

Acrobat is a program from adobe.com that let you capture a document and then view it in its original format and appearance. Acrobat is ideal for making documents or brochures that were designed for the print medium viewable electronically and capable of being shared with others on the Internet. To view an Acrobat document, which is called a Portable Document Format (PDF) file, you need Acrobat Reader. The Reader is free and can be downloaded from Adobe. You can use it as a standalone reader or as a plug-in in a Web browser.

Acrobat is actually a set of products. The latest version, Acrobat 3.0, includes a "toolkit" that lets you scan in or otherwise capture documents created with Word, PageMaker, and other desktop publishing products. The resulting PDF files can then be available for viewing either directly with the Reader or they can be viewed as embedded files within the Netscape Navigator browser. Acrobat 3.0 comes in versions for Windows 3.1, 95, and NT; for the MAC, and for UNIX platforms.

 

ActiveX

ActiveX is the name Microsoft has given to a set of "strategic" (object-oriented programming technologies and tools. The main technology is the Component Object Model (COM) Used in a network with a directory and additional support, COM becomes the Distributed Component Object Model (DCOM) The main thing that you create when writing a program to run in the ActiveX environment is a component, a self-sufficient program that can be run anywhere in your ActiveX network (currently a network consisting of Windows and Macintosh systems). This component is known as an ActiveX control. ActiveX is Microsoft's answer to the Java technology from Sun Microsystems. An ActiveX control is roughly equivalent to a Java applet.

 

ActiveX Control

An ActiveX control is a program that can be re-used by many application programs within a computer or among computers in a network. The technology for creating ActiveX controls is part of Microsoft's overall ActiveX set of technologies, chief of which is the Component Object Model (COM) ActiveX controls can be downloaded as small programs or animations for Web pages, but they can also be used for any commonly-needed task by an application program in the latest Windows and Macintosh environments.

 

Bits Per Second

Also known as baud; the data transmission rate, usually on a modem or network connection. Modems usually support transmission rates or 65 bps or higher. The higher the bits per second, the faster you will be able to access and transfer information.

 

Browser

A program that allows you to access and view information on the Internet through the World Wide Web. SPRY Mosaic and Lynx are examples of World Wide Web browser programs.

 

Bulletin Board System(BBS)

A forum for discussion in which users read messages left by other members of the bulletin board and provide, or post, their own messages. Bulletin boards cover many different subjects, from cats to politics to relationships. The Internet has a large-scale bulletin board-type system called USENET News, which consists of newsgroups containing messages from users all over the Internet and covering a wide range of subject areas.

 

Chat

conversation with groups over the Internet. Chat is similar to a telephone conference call, only you type your comments, and read others remarks from your computer screen. You can interactively chat with other users via a relay or chat server. Numerous Internet Relay Chat (IRC) applications can be found on the Internet and downloaded to your PC using FTP.

 

Client

A program that requests information from a server. For example, a Mosaic browser is a client that displays Web pages that are located on a World Wide Web server. Likewise, an FTP client can be used to download files from an FTP. The interactions between clients and servers are referred to as client/server computing.

 

Client/server

Conversing with groups over the Internet. Chat is similar to a telephone conference call, only you type your comments, and read others remarks from your computer screen. You can interactively chat with other users via a relay or chat server. Numerous Internet Relay Chat (IRC) applications can be found on the Internet and downloaded to your PC using FTP.

 

Cyberspace

A term used to refer to the electronic universe of information available through the Internet.

 

Database

A collection of information organized in a manner that makes it easy to access. There are many different ways to organize or structure the data stored in databases. There are thousands of databases on the Internet containing a wide variety of information.

 

Dedicated Line

A telephone or data line that is always available for use. For example, a leased telephone line can be dedicated for computer data communications. This line is not used by other computers or individuals, is available 24 hours a day, and is never disconnected (except for maintenance purposes). A switched, or dialup line, on the other hand, is used only for the duration of the connection and can be shared by many users.

 

Directory

A directory is like a folder that contains one or more documents or files. Typically, related files are kept in the same directory. For example, all the files for an application are usually kept in one directory. When accessing a file, you might have to specify the directory in which it is kept.

 

DNS (Domain Name System)

Domain Name System, a network service used to convert system names to numeric IP addresses. This allows you to use human-readable names rather than dotted decimal notation to refer to systems and users.

 

DNS Server

A server used to translate system names to IP addresses you will need access to a DNS server.

 

Download

To transfer a file from a remote computer to yours. You can download files to your computer using File Transfer Protocol (FTP).

 

E-mail (Electronic Mail)

A method used to send and receive messages over a network. You use an e-mail program to compose and send a message, and it is sent to a remote mailbox, where it can be retrieved and read by the address.

 

E-mail Address

A method used to send and receive messages over a network. You use an e-mail program to compose and send a message, and it is sent to a remote mailbox, where it can be retrieved and read by the addressee.

 

Emotion

A group of characters which when are viewed in a particular way, such as sideways, looks like a face or an object. Emotions are used to add expression to text. For example, the following group of characters when viewed sideways looks like a smiling face or smiley. :-)

 

FTP (File Transfer Protocol)

File Transfer Protocol, a service used to transfer text and binary files between computers. Using FTP, you can copy files from a remote computer to your computer; you can also copy files from your computer to a remote computer, if that computer permits it. The verb ftp means to transfer files from a remote computer to your computer using FTP (File Transfer Protocol). You will often come across this usage when surfing the.

 

FTP site

A computer which stores files that can be retrieved using FTP. FTP sites that allow anyone to retrieve files (without requiring you to have an account on that computer) are known as anonymous FTP sites.

 

Freeware

Free software distributed by the author. The author retains all copyright privileges.

 

GIF (Graphic Interchange Format)

Graphics Interchange Format; a graphics file format popularized by CompuServe and used heavily throughout the Internet. Most World Wide Web servers use GIF graphics to display graphical information. JPEG is another common graphics format.

 

Home page

A commonly used World Wide Web (WWW) document. A home page often resembles a snazzy table of contents with hyperlinks to other WWW servers around the world. Mosaic is pre-configured with its own Home page. In addition, many companies, universities, and individuals have their own Home pages.

 

HTML (Hypertext Markup Language)

Hypertext Markup Language, the document formatting language used to design most World Wide Web pages.

 

HTTP( Hypertext Transmission Protocol)

Hypertext Transmission Protocol, the protocol used to transfer World Wide Web (WWW) pages through the Internet.

 

Hypertext

Text that is linked to other related text. For example, most Help information is hypertext based. Hypertext words are typically highlighted in some manner, either by being displayed in a different color or underlined (or both). Clicking on a hypertext word takes you directly to the related information.

 

Internet

The largest collection of interconnected networks in the world. These include university, corporate, government, and research networks around the world. Millions of systems and people are connected to the Internet through these networks. You can connect to the Internet through an Internet Service Provider.

 

Internet Protocol

Internet Protocol, the networking protocol used to route information through the Internet via numeric IP addresses.

 

JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group)

A standardized image compression mechanism. JPEG stands for Joint Photographic Experts Group, the original name of the committee that wrote the standard, but is used to refer to a type of image format found on the Internet. Many World Wide Web servers contain JPEG images.

 

Local System

The system you are using. Interactions between your computer and another computer on the Internet are sometimes described using the term's local and remote systems. The local system is your computer and the remote system is the other computer.

 

Login

The act of signing onto a computer. You typically have to log into a computer before you are allowed to use it or access its programs or files. When you log in, you usually need to provide your name or identification and password. This prevents unauthorized users from accessing computers.

 

Mailing List

A list of e-mail users who are members of a group. A mailing list can be an informal group of people who share e-mail with one another.

 

Modem

A communications device that converts data between the digital format used by computers and the analog format used for transmission on telephone lines. The name modem is derived from the term modulation/demodulation, which is the process described above. You can use a modem to connect your computer to another computer, an online service, and more.

 

MPEG

Moving Picture Experts Group. MPEG is a standard (set by the MPEG group) used for digital video, (movie) type compression. MPEG is used to refer to movie files commonly found on the Internet. You must have an MPEG player to view MPEG files; Shareware and freeware MPEG players are often available on anonymous ftp sites.

 

Multimedia

Combining different types of data, such as text, graphics, sounds, and moving images.

 

Navigate

To maneuver, move, or travel through the various areas on the Internet. You can navigate through the Internet in a variety of ways. You can move through a series of gopher menus by selecting entries on each menu. Also, you can navigate through World Wide Web (WWW) pages by clicking on hyperlinks on each page. Additionally, you can navigate directly by specifying the locations you wish to visit.

 

Net

Another term for the Internet.

 

News

A term often used to denote USENET news, a popular forum for discussion on the Internet.

 

Newsgroup

A discussion group usually found on USENET news. There are thousands of newsgroups available on the Internet. Each group devotes its discussions to a specific topic.

 

News server

A machine that contains a number of USENET newsgroups, discussion groups on countless subjects. You can connect to a News Server read and post network news. News Server administrators decide which of the thousands of USENET newsgroups to carry. News Servers may only allow access to certain individuals.

 

Online

The state of being actively connected to a network. While online, you may exchange data and interactively communicate with other users or computers on the network.

 

Packet

A unit of data with attached headers containing addressing information. Packets are used to route information between computers through the Internet. For example, a packet might contain text from a document, a graphic, or the binary code for a program. All the information that flows through the Internet does so in the form of packets.

 

Password

A word or sequence of characters that uniquely identifies you. A password is typically associated with your user name. The combination of your user name and password is used to verify that you are who you say you are, and that you are authorized to use certain systems or resources on the Internet. Typically, when you login to a computer, you must specify your user name and password.

 

PPP (Point to Point Protocol)

Point-to-Point Protocol, a communication protocol that let you accesses the Internet over a phone line. You can use a wide variety of applications over a PPP connection. In contrast, other types of dialup accounts such as shell or terminal access account allow you to get to the Internet, but often require you to use applications provided by the Internet Service Provider.

 

Remote System

Another computer on the Internet to which you connect. Interactions between computers are often described using the term's local and remote system. The local system is your computer and the remote system is the other computer to which you connect. Another common term for system is host (remote host, or local host).

 

Rlogin

A method used to access a remote host, which does not require a login procedure. You can only use Rlogin if the remote host is set up to allow you access.

 

RFC (Request for Comments)

A type of document that defines standards or provides information on various topics. Many Internet and networking standards are defined, as RFCs. RFCs are available through the Internet.

 

Server

A program that provides services to client programs. Different types of servers provide different types of services. For example, an FTP server allows an FTP client program to access files on that server. A Web server allows a Web client to view pages on that server, and gets information from that server.

 

Shareware

Freely distributed software that you may try before paying. If you keep the software and use the program, then you should send payment to the shareware author.

 

Signature

Lines of text that is automatically added to the end of your e-mail messages. You might want your signature to include your real name and address, or something you want to be noted for, such as a witty saying.

 

SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)

Simple Mail Transfer Protocol, a method used for sending Internet e-mail.

 

TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol)

Transmission Control Protocol and Internet Protocol, two communication protocols that are used to route information through the Internet. TCP and IP are also used for local area network (LAN) communications and tying networks together (internetworking).

 

Upload

Transferring a file from your computer to another computer on the Internet. You can use File Transfer Protocol (FTP) to upload files from your computer to other computers on the Internet.

 

UNIX

A multi-user operating system developed by Bell Laboratories. UNIX runs on a wide variety of hardware platforms, and supports multitasking operations. Many of the systems on the Internet are UNIX-based.

 

URL (Uniform Resource Locator)

Uniform Resource Locator, a string of characters that represents the location or address of a resource on the Internet and how that resource should be accessed. World Wide Web pages are assigned a unique URL. Each hyperlink on a web page contains the URL of the page to be linked to. A sample URL is: http://www.aims-eg.com

 

Username

The string of characters that identifies you. When connecting to a computer, you typically need to provide your user name and password. This information is used to verify that you are authorized to use the system.

 

Wide Area Information Servers (WAIS)

A distributed information system that allows you to search databases for information based on keywords that you specify. WAIS returns a weighted list of files that match your keywords. There are numerous shareware and freeware WAIS applications available on the Internet for anonymous FTP download.

 

Web page

An HTML document found on the World Wide Web also referred to as a home page. You can view a Web page using a browser.

 

Whois

A database that you can use to locate people on the Internet. If found, the user's name, address, phone number, company, and e-mail address is typically displayed. Whois can be used to find someone's e-mail address. The Whois database can be accessed using a Telnet program.

 

World Wide Web (WWW)

A hypermedia-based system that makes it easier to browse for information on the Internet. Information available on the World Wide Web is presented on Web pages. A Web page can contain text and graphics, which can be linked to other pages. These hyperlinks allow you to navigate in a non-sequential way through information.

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